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Lysozyme is a enzyme present in egg white it functions by attacking peptidoglycans (found in the cell walls of bacteria, especially Gram-positive bacteria) . It does this by binding to the peptidoglycan molecule in the binding site. This causes the substrate molecule to adopt a strained conformation. According to Phillips-Mechanism, the lysozyme binds to a hexasaccharide. The lysozyme then distorts the fourth sugar in hexasaccharide (the D ring) into a half-chair conformation. In this stressed state, the glycosidic bond is easily broken.

Lysozyme is part of the innate immune system, basically working as a anti-bacterial agent. Reduced lysozyme levels have been associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in newborns. Children fed infant formula lacking lysozyme in their diet have three times the rate of diarrheal disease.Since lysozyme is a natural form of protection from pathogens like Salmonella, E.coli, and Pseudomonas, a deficiency due to infant formula feeding can lead to increased incidence of disease.